Indonesia Harus Bangga Swasembada Beras Kembali Terulang
Oleh :Hadi Susanto*

By Adminjabar 02 Feb 2019, 13:33:15 WIBEkonomi

Indonesia Harus Bangga Swasembada Beras Kembali Terulang

Keterangan Gambar : Indonesia Harus Bangga Swasembada Beras Kembali Terulang


Kisah tentang swasembada beras di negeri ini telah meredup gaungnya selama bertahun – tahun. Cerita mengenai ketahanan pangan dan swasembada beras itu kemudian seperti impian, susah kembali untuk diraih. Prestasi ini berhasil diraih Indonesia pada tahun 1984.Segala upayapun telah dilakukan hingga akhirnya kerja keras itu menjadi kenyataan kembali.Dalam kurun waktu empat tahun terakhir ini, Indonesia berhasil mencapai swasembada beras.Berdasarkan ketetapan FAO tahun 1999, suatu negara dapat dikatakan swasembada beras jika produksinya mencapai 90% dari kebutuhan nasional. Artinya Indonesia telah berhasil mencapai swasembada beras dalam empat tahun terakhir.

Tentu ada hal yang menarik dari prestasi era pemerintahan Jokowi, dimana pada tahun 1984, jumlah penduduk Indonesia 100 juta jiwa, sementara sekarang mencapai 260 juta jiwa. Artinya pertumbuhan penduduk meningkat dua kali lipat. Dengan demikian, masalah swasembada beras sudah selesai. Ini yang harus dipahami secara luas agar masyarakat tidak dibuat bingung dengan berbagai isu yang ada.

Pembangunan pertanian tidak hanya terpaut dalam urusan beras, akan tetapi sektor pertanian memiliki 460 komoditas yang harus dijaga siang dan malam. Menariknya, ekspor komoditas pertanian pada tahun 2018 mampu melejit hingga 29,7%.Menteri Pertanian Andi Amran juga menuturkan bahwa cadangan beras saat ini mencapai 2 juta ton. Sedangkan standar cadangan beras nasional sebanyak 1 juta ton, artinya cadangan beras Indonesia berjumlah dua kali lipat dari standar cadangan secara nasional.

Pihaknya juga menambahkan bahwa berdasarkan data BPS, stok beras yang berada di rumah tangga mencapai 8 9 juta ton. Dengan demikian, jika ditambah stok beras bulog 2 juta ton, stok beras nasional saat ini mencapai 10 sampai 11 ton. Jika konsumsi beras nasional 2,5 juta ton, artinya stok beras yang kita punya bisa mencukupi kebutuhan selama empat bulan.

Tentu perlu dicatat juga bahwasanya Kementan terus mendorong transformasi pertanian dari pertanian tradisional ke pertanian modern. Dengan modernisasi target peningkatan produksi hasil pertanian menjadi lebih visible untuk diwujudkan.Masyarakat juga sempat panik dengan adanya isu harga beras termahal. Amran menegaskan bahwa harga beras eceran di Indonesia bukanlah yang termahal di dunia. Pasalnya, jika di-rangking maka Indonesia menempati peringkat ke-81 harga beras eceran termahal di dunia, yakni berada di kisaran harga Rp 12.374 per Kg.

Urutan pertama beras eceran termahal dunia adalah negara matahari terbit, Jepang, dengan harga beras sebesar Rp 57.678 per Kg, sementara harga beras termurah ditempati oleh negara Sri Lanka, yaitu sebesar Rp 7.618 per Kg. Dengan adanya informasi tersebut, Menteri Amran memohon agar informasi yang tidak benar terkait harga beras eceran Indonesia termahal di dunia, jangan terus dijadikan polemik.

Semestinya rakyat Indonesia patut berbangga bahwa berdasarkan data Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), pada tahun 2017 Indonesia menempati nomor urut ke-3 negara penghasil beras terbesar di dunia.Hal senada disampaikan Anggota Komisi IV DPR Firman Subagiyo. Firman melihat banyak terobosan yang dilakukan pemerintahan Jokowi – JK dalam mengangkat sektor pertanian selama 2 tahun menjabat. Dengan berbagai terobosan tersebut, Negara Indonesia sudah tidak lagi mengimpor beras pada 2 November 2016.

Ketua Kontak Tani Nelayan Andalan (KTNA), Winarno Tohir, mengatakan bahwa perkiraan itu betul dan sudah sesuai karena tiap tahun mengalami kenaikan produksi. Menurutnya, pemerintah telah menggerakkan potensi – potensi yang sudah ada.Lahan pasang surut dan rawa lebak tidak diabaikan lagi. Ditambah sekarang sudah dibantu dengan peralatan mesin pertanian sehingga menjadi dua kali tanam. Ditunjang tahun ini La Nina hujan terus yang bisa dijadikan peluang.

Tentu akan muncul sebuah tanda tanya, apa penyebab harga beras selalu menjadi polemik. Ternyata hal tersebut terjadiakibat ulah mafia pangan. Namun demikian, di era pemerintahan Jokowi – JK, Kementan bersama Panglima TNI, Kapolri, KPPU, dan Bulog sudah banyak menyelesaikan mafia pangan.Sebanyak 409 mafia pangan yang telah menimbulkan keresahan dan polemik, sudah dikirim ke penjara dan yang sedang diproses hukum sebanyak 782 perusahaan yang telah mendapatkan sanksi tegas.Amran juga menegaskan bahwasanya tidak akan ada kompromi bagi mafia pangan, karena hal tersebut merupakan mandat dari Presiden. Sebab ketahanan pangan juga menyangkut ketahanan negara.

Disisilain, Perserikatan Bangsa – Bangsa (PBB) memberikan apresiasi atas kinerja Menteri Pertanian Andi Amran Sulaiman atas capaian beberapa komoditi pangan strategis yang sudah berswasembada hingga tahun 2018. Di antaranya adalah beras, bawang merah, jagung, serta komoditas perkebunan dan peternakan.Apresiasi juga diberikan PBB atas upaya Mentan dalam melindungi petani. Itu terkait dengan memberikan bantuan – bantuan saprodi, alat dan mesin pertanian, serta memperpendek rantai pasok produk pertanian yang semuanya didedikasikan untuk meningkatkan pendapatan petani dan pengentasan kemiskinan.

Pihaknya juga mengagumi atas kegigihan Amran dalam melindungi petani sawit. PBB akan terus mendukung upaya – upaya pemerintah dalam melindungi petani termasuk dalam mendorong perlindungan pada varietas – varietas padi dan komoditi lainnya yang dikembangkan petani di daerah – daerah dalam hal ini varietas lokal.

Tentu capaian prestasi ini tidak bisa dilepaskan dari kerjasama lintas kementerian. Kerjasama yang baik juga dijalin Kementan bersama dengan Kemendag, Kepolisian Republik Indonesia, Kemendagri, Bulog dan Komisi Pengawas persaingan Usaha (KPPU) dalam bentuk Tim Satgas Pangan. Tim Satgas Pangan dibentuk jelang bulan Ramadhan dan Idul Fitri 2017 untuk mengawasi harga dan ketersediaan pangan, serta melakukan penegakkan hukum terhadap mafia pangan dan kartel.

*PenulisadalahPengamatMasalahEkonomi



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